Duration: 2 hours

You will learn that beer is a little different to other brewed beverages in that it begins with a starch rather than a sugar. The starch is provided by a high starch plant material (usually in cereal grains), which is soaked in water. As it soaks the starches change to sugars, producing a sweet liquid. The sugar solution is then fermented. Do you want to know more? Access this course NOW!
Duration: 1 hour

Cider is an alcoholic drink made from apples, and especially ‘cider apples’ which are a bitter apple that are not very good for eating fresh. Following a first fermentation, other fruits and sugar may be added for the second fermentation. Learn more about brewing your favorite drink!
Duration: 1 hour

Beer and wine are very much a part of modern day culture but their use evolved many centuries ago. In fact, the crudest type of alcoholic drinks made from fermented grains can be traced back to the Neolithic period in South West Asia around 6,000 to 8,000 BC. If it interested you, this is the right course for you!
Duration: 1 hour

Mead is one of the oldest alcoholic drinks in the world, known through history in Europe, Africa and Asia. Mead is a honey wine made by mixing water with wine then adding yeast to create a brewed honey. In this course, you'll learn about how mead is prepared, ingredients required, the mead-making process, and different types of mead available. Useful for extending your existing brewing practice or for beginners looking to get started.
Duration: 1 hour

Although no and low alcohol drinks would seem to contradict the reasons for making alcoholic beverages, they have become more widespread in recent decades. In this course, you'll learn about the history of non-alcoholic drinks, types, and ways to remove or reduce alcohol in the end product.
Duration: 1 hour

There are unlimited possibilities for varying the way you change or manipulate brewed drinks; both during the process of making the drink, or after it is made. In this course, you'll learn about mixed drinks and cocktails, the art of brewing, what type of equipment you need, and key recipes to get you started.
Duration: 3 hours

Learn how to make probiotic drinks. Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms (live bacteria and yeasts) that are found naturally within the human body and digestive system but can also be introduced through the consumption of certain foods that also contain them. In this course, you'll learn about the benefits of probiotics, how to make kefir, variations on kefir, kombucha, and beet kvass.
Duration: 2 hours

Like wine, beer and other alcoholic drinks, spirits are made by fermentation. However, spirits involve a further process of distillation where some of the water is removed to leave a stronger alcoholic drink. In this course, you'll learn about spirit groups, the spirit making process, liqueur groups, and the liqueur making process.
Duration: 3 hours

Winemaking is based on one simple biochemical reaction that converts sugar to alcohol. When a sugar (such as fructose or glucose) is combined with yeast bacteria and allowed to ferment it changes form to produce ethyl alcohol plus carbon dioxide and energy. In this course, you'll learn the basic definitions and processes used to make wine.
Duration: 4 hours

Winemaking can be very rewarding both for the maker and the consumer. Those who grow their own grapes will be familiar with the many challenges that it poses, but for many the fruits are sourced from elsewhere. In this course, you'll learn about important definitions, the general winemaking process, types of yeast, and several types of fermentation. You'll also cover the differences between red and white wine.
Duration: 2 hours

Today’s cooking results of the evolution of agriculture, commerce and greater transport links between countries which has allowed us to access new ingredients and learn different cooking techniques and recipes. In this course, you'll learn about the basics of cooking methods, general cooking equipment, how to effectively use and manage a freezer, and even the general process for drying food.
Duration: 2 hours

Many people lack the knowledge and skills required to choose, prepare and cook fruit and vegetables and this can affect our enjoyment of these foods by altering their taste, colour and texture. In this course, you'll learn about options for preparing a wide range of different fruits and vegetables for consumption. Includes material on preparing, a variety of cooking techniques, and health benefits.
Duration: 2 hours

Starchy foods such as bread, cereals, rice, pasta and potatoes are an essential part of a healthy diet. Starchy foods (complex carbohydrates) provide the body with carbohydrate which is the most efficient form of energy. Along with their many health benefits starchy foods can taste great and look appealing although choosing the wrong varieties or poor cooking/ preparation techniques can ruin their appeal. In this course, you'll learn about options for preparing a wide range of different cereals and starches for consumption.
Duration: 2 hours

Meat, fish and meat substitutes play an essential role in a healthy, balanced diet. They are an excellent source of protein which is needed for growth and repair and are packed with essential vitamins and minerals such as Iron, zinc, selenium, B-vitamins and vitamin D. In this course, you'll learn how to prepare a wide range of different meat, fish and protein substitute foods for consumption.
Duration: 3 hours

Milk and dairy products such as cheese, yoghurt and fromage frais are excellent sources of protein and vitamins (especially vitamin A and B12) and are also an important source of calcium helping promote strong bones and teeth. We shall consider the use of milk and dairy foods in basic cookery and discuss how to choose, prepare and cook with them. In this course, you'll learn how to prepare a range of dairy foods for consumption. Includes material on savoury yoghurts and dairy free cooking.
Duration: 2 hours

Foods containing fats and sugars can be an extremely palatable and enjoyable part of our diet. These foods can be included as part of a healthy diet as long as they are present in the smallest proportion and seen as treats. In this course, you'll learn about fats and sugars in more detail, then compare different fats and sugars (or foods high in fat or sugar) for consumption.
Duration: 2 hours

Even the most basic dish can be transformed into a gourmet meal by using a complimenting stock, sauce, flavouring or garnish. In this course, you'll consider basic preparation techniques and dishes where such enhancements can truly lift a dish. You'll also learn about a wide range of different food flavourings, seasonings, garnishes, sauces, and more in preparing food for consumption.
Duration: 2 hours

Once you have decided to host a dinner party first consider the practicalities. What is the date of your proposed party? Have you drawn up a guest list and theme? Remember that guests should feel as comfortable as possible and in designing your party it is important to consider aspects such as their individual tastes, the age of your guests and the general ambience you are striving to create. In this course, you'll learn how to design a menu catering to a small number of people or a group such as family meals or a dinner party.
Duration: 2 hours

Large scale menu planning generally refers to catering. In this course, you'll concentrate on catering on a large scale mostly for a profit-making catering business. You'll learn about different types of catering and then concentrate on some practical aspects such as economic and food safety issues before discussing some menus which can work on a large scale. You'll also learn how to design a menu for feeding large groups of people.
Duration: 1 hour

Planning food and drinks at an event is an important process. The larger the event, the more complex it can be with large numbers of desires, tastes and dislikes to cater too. For the overall success of a venue or events management business, the quality of food and beverages on offer is paramount. This introductory course encourages you think about many considerations of event catering.
Duration: 2 hours

Management of adventure tourism destinations and services requires versatility and exceptional organisational skills. Managers need to be able fill a vast array of roles. In this course you will learn the foundations of managing an adventure tourism destination or service, marketing tools appropriate for each type of client; media; staffing; and more. Includes case studies.
Duration: 2 hours

All adventure tourism carries a degree of risk; indeed, it is the element of risk that is the key attraction for many people. Risk can be exciting, providing an adrenaline rush as the participant strives to overcome physical and mental challenges, which is then followed by a sense of elation and fulfillment once the activity has been successfully completed. In this course, you will learn how to identify risks and strategies for reducing their negative impacts on customers, operators; insurance and training.
Duration: 3 hours

A front desk operator needs to be enthusiastic and enjoy working with the public. They should be tactful and courteous, professional and mature, and able to manage stress well. They should have good communication and people-skills, be well-organised and responsible. In this course, you will learn about the complexities and management issues relating to front desk operations; how to improve efficiency; problem-solving strategies; forms; business/staff presentation and customer service.
Duration: 2 hours

The more complex an event is, the more safeguards or contingency plans you need to have in place. Your contingency plans should cover all probabilities and responses, so on the day there is a clear understanding of the steps that need to be taken to control the problem or situation. In this course, you will work through a brief overview of what practical aspects of event delivery need to be planned for. Includes a post-event feedback strategy to help improve on each new event.
Duration: 3 hours

Planning an event is a process that will typically move through a logical sequence of stages. Developing a concept for an event is the first step in event planning. Successful event planning takes considerable thought and research. In this course, you will work through the first steps on how to develop, plan and manage events. Includes material on stakeholders and parameters.
Duration: 3 hours

People attending or hosting events, or promoting products at an event, are often referred to as the clientele. Customers have often paid for the experience to attend an event in some way, so they will expect excellent customer service and facilities catering to their needs. In this course, you'll learn about working with, and organising, people at events.
Duration: 1 hour

Some of the most common events are relatively small events with 50 to 150 or so participants, or less. In this course, you will learn about the organization of small events, how to plan them efficiently. Includes material on children's parties, weddings, and reunions, along with a set of clear decision lists for beginner planners.
Duration: 2 hours

It is important to understand the difference between conferences, conventions, seminars, workshops, trade shows, expos and symposiums. When you are asked to manage an event such as any of these, you will need to market it correctly in order to attract the right type of attendee. In this course, you'll learn about the differences between educational events and tradeshows, and how to start the organising process.
Duration: 1 hour

Once you have worked hard on an event, it is important to give time to adequate promotion to make it a success. Every event needs to be marketed. Marketing involves every aspect of getting the product or service from the supplier to the consumer (apart from the actual service or product itself). In this course, you'll learn about how to decide on your audience, how to market to different groups, and more. Includes a case study.
Duration: 3 hours

All projects and events present with some form of risk. Legal requirements and obligations need to be taken into account. Risk is the type of situation which might occur which are unknown or undecided. They will have either a positive or negative effect on the objectives or outcomes. In this course, you'll learn how to identify risks, forms of risk, risk analysis, contingency planning, and how to use a SWOT analysis to help you flip risks into opportunities.
Duration: 4 hours

Events are commonly short-lived – they have a beginning and an ending, they are impermanent, finite: a moment in time. Events are also unique; each event has characteristics that apply only to it, and to no other event. Each (individual) event will have specific requirements and present differing problems. in this course, you'll learn about types of events, their potential impact across economic, political, and environmental spheres, and timelines. You'll also learn about what makes a good event manager.
Duration: 2 hours

The cost of equipment needed to effectively run a hotel is extremely high and also some of it, in the case of linen for example, also needs regular replacement. Stock control systems also need to be in place so that management can determine where the stock is held throughout the hotel, fluctuations in stocking levels and when there is a need to purchase or hire more equipment. In this course, you'll learn about how to furnish rooms for minimal cost and optimum longevity. You'll also learn how to properly service a hotel room. Includes principles and techniques for general cleaning.
Duration: 2 hours

Cocktails are one of the better-known styles of mixed drinks. Historically, a cocktail was the name given to a drink that contained distilled spirits, sugar, water and bitters. Today however, the word cocktail is synonymous with any mixed drink that contains one or more types of alcohol. In this course, you will learn about mixing a range of drinks, including recipes, bar flairing, common terminology, and some important information on how to maintain quality of fresh fruits and taste.
Duration: 1 hour

There are an increasingly wide range of these available including juices, squashes, cider, non-alcoholic wine, mineral water, carbonated soft drinks, teas and coffees. In this course, you will learn how to prepare and present these to customers. Includes a useful list of specialty teas and covers the basics of coffee roasts and varieties.
Duration: 1 hour

Bar staff are employed in restaurants, and bars to primarily service customers with drinks, and secondarily, food (occasionally other things such as cigarettes and cigars). In some situations, bar staff may only dispense drinks and snacks such as nuts and potato crisps. In other situations (e.g. at a pub), bar staff may be required to take orders for "counter meals” and dispense the meals after they have been prepared by the cook. In this course, you'll learn about the general duties for bar staff, customer service, grooming, scope of the industry, legislation, preparing drink and food menus.
Duration: 4 hours

Travel consultants and agents perform a variety of roles for their clients. In this course, you'll learn how to advise a client on planning for unforeseen circumstances on a trip, such as financial, legal and insurance issues. You'll learn the general requirements for overseas travel, including visas, driving requirements, and carrying medication to a destination country. Includes information on which documents are the traveller's specific responsibility.
Duration: 3 hours

The purpose of ecotourism is to foster an appreciation of nature and culture while promoting conservation, supporting sustainable community development, minimizing tourism’s negative impacts, and providing for the active, beneficial involvement of local communities. It also enables communities to thrive economically while preserving and restoring the resources on which the travel and tourism industry and local communities depend. In this course, you'll learn the basics of ecotourism, elements of a good tour, and strategies for planning around safety concerns.
Duration: 2 hours

Cleaning services are important for aesthetics as well as health and hygiene in both domestic and commercial situations. The work of cleaning services is mostly routine and completed indoors, though it can periodically involve one-off jobs (e.g. cleaning up after an event) and outdoor work. In this course, you will learn about the nature of the cleaning industry, equipment and materials used, concepts such as sustainability, what products to use in each standard cleaning type, and more.
Duration: 2 hours

Removing stains is an important part of any cleaning service, from dry cleaning through to hospital cleaning and maintenance. The presence of staining causes users to think of the surface in question as unclean, even if it has been thoroughly washed and the stain has faded. As such, premium cleaning services usually have an armoury of stain removers at their disposal. In this course, you'll learn about cleaning a range of stains from different surfaces and specialist cleaning techniques.
Duration: 3 hours

There are many different types of flooring, and all require proper cleaning and maintenance. Floors should be cleaned or washed at least once per week in domestic situations. In commercial and industrial settings, floors should usually be cleaned daily. In this course, you will learn how to clean different indoor floor surfaces and outdoor ground surfaces. You will learn that there are many different types of flooring, and all require proper cleaning and maintenance. Includes material on indoor and outdoor services.
Duration: 2 hours

While the words ‘furniture’ and ‘furnishings’ are related, they are quite distinct. The major difference is that furniture is functional and necessary in houses and offices. Chairs, beds, and tables are all items of furniture. Furnishings and linens are often grouped together due to the similarity in textiles. In this course, you will learn different ways of cleaning furnishings and furniture including a range of fabrics and other materials. You will learn how to test a product, understand the types of fibre and more.
Duration: 3 hours

Cultural tourism is a vast and varied area of tourism and includes attractions from modern art museums to cave drawings, from religious monuments and events to contemporary art performances. Putting together a package for a cultural attraction for tourism purposes requires insight into what the attraction is and how best to view it or participate in it. Generally, it is a learning experience whereby visitors gain an insight into another culture: the people, their lifestyle, heritage, and arts. In this course, you'll learn about important considerations, working with indigenous cultures, planning, and more.
Duration: 1 hour

When it comes to cleaning in commercial set-ups, there are several options. These can include working fulltime in one location through to working in several locations each week. Work can also be less skilled or highly specialised. In this course, you'll get a solid introduction to the commercial cleaning industry and specialisms for work roles. You will conduct research to find out what job entails. You will learn about the general and specific skills, and more advanced skills needed in commercial cleaning.
Duration: 3 hours

Understand how to clean and maintain hygiene in kitchens in residential homes, cafes, and restaurants. Hygienic kitchens are essential to good health. This means that cleaning with the proper products and techniques is important. Products and techniques matter because bacteria, moulds, and other potential health concerns can occur in hidden parts of a kitchen and lead to food spoilage and/or contamination. This can cause harm to health.
Duration: 2 hours

Clean toilet and bathroom facilities are essential for good health. This is especially true in high-traffic facilities, such as those found in office buildings, shopping centres, parks and leisure facilities, hotels, airports, service stations, hospitals, and schools. There are factors to consider in safety when cleaning wet room areas.
Duration: 4 hours

Learn how to maintain an overall system of control within a hotel. The hospitality industry is one of high demands and expectations and if you want to meet these high demands you have to be able to offer the best, twenty-four hours a day and seven days a week. Reliability is one of the keys to top quality and in order to achieve this, the necessary control systems must be functional and in place.
Duration: 2 hours

Accommodation facilities can vary greatly in terms of both the scope and quality of services provided. The location can be as basic as a campsite or as luxurious as a five-star resort. Learn to understand accommodation options in the tourism industry, budget to luxury, and self catering to catered. Understand different rating systems from black to coloured stars, and reviews, which work to help guests choose where they wish to stay.
Duration: 1 hour

Food preservation is an industry that is used by virtually everyone – producers and consumers alike. Meat and fish producers need to preserve most of what they produce. The minimum requirement is that food must be preserved long enough to get the produce to market. Beyond that though, there is an opportunity for these primary producers to value-add to the products they produce, and in doing so preserved meat and fish products can generate more income per kilogram, and can be stored and sold over a much longer period of time than fresh food due to its extended shelf life.
Duration: 2 hours

Most people might think of canned meats and fish, as being canned tuna, sardines, ham or spam; but in fact, most meats, fish and even dairy products can be canned or bottled. The general procedure involves removing bone and excess fat, then cutting the meat into smaller pieces. In this course, you'll learn about a variety of methods, procedures, processing times, and how to account for high altitudes.
Duration: 1.5 hours

Curing meat involves processes to extend the period of storage. Usually this involves lowering moisture in the meat and often using additives or preservatives which inhibit decomposition or microbial growth by plasmolysis. The addition of salt over the surface of the meat draws the moisture out of it evenly through the process of osmosis. It is known that the growth of undesirable organisms can be inhibited at relatively low concentrations.
Duration: 1 hour

Indigenous people have air dried meats for hundreds of years. They have often used lean meat cut thinly into strips. This product is ready to consume when the texture becomes hard after hanging in the sun. The drying method of curing meat was sometimes used on its own - but also in conjunction with other methods of preserving, such as curing. In this course, you'll learn about the purpose of drying, meats to use, processes, and storage.
Duration: 1 hour

Freezing is the fastest and most economical way of preserving food and can be a very effective method for preserving meat and poultry. It is also very easy as long as you follow a few guidelines for specific produce. You should endeavour to freeze food as quickly as possible so the best type of freezer for home food storage is the deep freeze, not the small frozen food type compartments, as the temperature in these is not adequately cold enough to keep food for long periods of time.
Duration: 1 hour

For many thousands of years humans have been preserving meat by different techniques. Traditionally, drying meat played a role in survival of the human race. Dried meat was non-perishable and lightweight which was ideal for being packed and carried for the long journeys we know of in hunting societies. This is only one example. In Europe it is known that Romans lived on a pork-rich diet which was mostly salted or smoked as a preservation strategy. Indian cultures preferred a method of curing which involved potassium or sodium nitrate.

Duration: 2 hours

You can smoke any type of meat but the tough cuts are the most commonly used i.e. ones that you would normally slow cook – these tend to end up having the best flavours. Oily fish such as salmon and trout but also lobster are commonly smoked, but white, firmfleshed fish can also be used (you just need to smoke for a shorter period using low heat). Turkey and chicken are also well-suited.
Duration: 1 hour

Vacuum packing is a method of preserving foods by preventing contact with oxygen - which is required by pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms in order for them to live and multiply.
Vacuum packing sucks air out of food packaging so that there is no air around the food. It is used in the preservation of a wide variety of foods and is especially suited to smoked fish, sliced meat and poultry.
Duration: 2 hours

In today’s busy world, more and more people are employing wedding organisers/ planners (also known as bridal consultants and wedding consultants) to help take the stress out of planning their wedding. With this course you will learn about different types of wedding, the nature and scope of wedding planning and the wedding industry.

Duration: 3 hours

The wedding planner’s main role is to ensure that the wedding goes smoothly. Therefore, it is important that you are aware of the traditional roles that each member of the party is required to fulfil. Some roles that may have been undertaken by the wedding party might also be handed over to you as the wedding planner. In this this course you will learn how to handle different personalities and the roles of different members of the bridal party, manage expectations, and utilise conflict management techniques.
Duration: 3 hours

The choices of venue are vast. Some couples may want a marquee, others a top hotel. This is up to the bride and groom to decide and to determine their budget. In this course you will learn to manage the use of appropriate locations for and associated with a wedding. Includes a run sheet of potential shots and a list of venue consideration questions.
Duration: 3 hours

When you start to plan the wedding, you need to consider everything you need to do and when you need to do it. Some couples may plan a couple of years in advance, others only a few weeks. In this course, will learn how to present a client with options and facilitate key decision making for a wedding. Useful for new event planners and prospective brides and grooms. Includes sample timelines.
Duration: 2 hours

The bride and groom need to get to the location of their wedding. They will need transport to the wedding, to the reception, and home if they are not staying at the reception venue. They will need to work through each programme, from pre-dinner drinks through to meal service, cake cutting, entertainment, and leaving the reception. In this course, you will learn how to develop a programme or schedule of activities and events associated with a wedding.
Duration: 3 hours

As with all services and contractors, a wedding planner may or may not get involved in helping the couple with some services that will support the wedding. With this course you will learn how to effectively control events on the day of a wedding, and how to provide useful additional services to further expand your business. Includes notes on invitation structure, dress purchase or rental (includes fabric overview), flowers, photography, and more.
Duration: 2 hours

With this course you will improve your ability to communicate with and assist your clients to manage a wedding and to achieve a desired outcome. You will look at things you need to consider when first meeting your clients, such as budgets, contracts and how you deal with cancellations. You'll also learn how to map expenses and the basics of symmetrical communication.
Duration: 2 hours

The planning phase of your business can be the most fun as you get to create this fabulously successful venture in your mind. What will you call it? What will your corporate colours be? What will your logos and stationery look like? Who will your clients be? In this course, you will learn how to turn your dreams into a plan, what is required to establish and run a viable wedding planning service business, and the basics of how to get started.
Duration: 1 hour

Weddings are broken down into smaller, manageable elements. Yet to run a successful event, you must also have a big picture view. In this course, you will review the wedding day as a whole. It is important to plan a timetable for the day, which can be customised for each individual situation. The guidelines in this course can be used to prepare this planLearn how to prepare to manage a wedding day, planning for all foreseeable and significant contingencies.
Duration: 1 hour

Canning or bottling involves putting food into a bottle, jar or can, then heating to a temperature that kills any microorganisms that might cause spoilage. The heating process will also cause air to be removed from the container. The container can then be sealed. In this course, you'll learn about equipment, sterilisation, ingredients, and bottling methods. You'll also have the opportunity to work through a recipe.
Duration: 3 hours

Records are an essential source of information about your business. They provide both an aid for decision making in the business operations and meet legal requirements. In this course you will learn tools to keep track of your income and expenditures (accounting systems and more). Includes a step-by-step overview of the bookkeeping process, information on petty cash and bank reconciliation, and profit and loss statements.
Duration: 2 hours

Drying is a method of food preservation which involves removing moisture (water) from foods. Drying has a very long history in food preservation coming from ancient times when people are known to have dried foods using the sun or wind in order to preserve them. Drying food removes the water which microorganisms require to live. Without water microorganisms die or become inactive.
Duration: 2 hours

Fermentation involves the conversion of carbohydrates (sugars) into carbon dioxide and alcohol using yeast or bacteria. Fermented foods are foods or ingredients that are formed by the action of microbes. Foods formed by fermentation reactions include products formed from milk such as cheese, yoghurt and sour cream which are produced by lactic acid bacteria; fermented sausage and hams which may be produced by lactic acid bacteria and mould; and wine, beer and spirits which are produced through the addition of yeast.
Duration: 2 hours

Freezing food is a simple and easy form of preservation that is achievable for anyone with a freezer. Freezing preserves food by keeping it at a temperature (generally about -15°C to -18°C) that is too cold for bacteria and fungi (yeasts and moulds) to grow - preventing spoilage and preserving the food for extended periods of time (between 1 month to a year, depending on the food).
Duration: 1 hour

undesirable changes taking place in food which makes food unfit/ unacceptable for human consumption. Food spoilage affects the way foods look e.g. the colour of food, the way foods smell, and the texture and consistency of foods. Food spoilage can also lower the nutritional value of food and make food unfit for consumption due to the creation of toxins in food.
Duration: 1 hour

Jams and jellies are a great way to preserve fruit. They are made by boiling fruit in water and sugar until it reaches a setting point. The fruit is primarily preserved by the action of sugar. As long as jams and jellies are made and stored appropriately (with clean equipment following a recipe then stored in a dry, cool place in an airtight container), they have a long shelf-life.
Duration: 2 hours

Smoking food is the oldest preservation technique. Smoking does in fact go back to early civilisations where animal carcasses were hung over an open wood fire to extend the shelf life of the meat. It involves exposing foods to heat and smoke from a fire e.g. by hanging them over the fire or placing them in racks in a chamber designed to contain smoke. Smoking is most often used to preserve meat such as sausages, ham and bacon but is also useful in the preservation of other foods such as poultry, wild game, fish, nuts, seeds, cheese and vegetables such as onions and peppers.
Duration: 1 hour

Food preservation can be defined as the use of different methods to make food last longer. Food preservation methods aim to prevent food spoilage caused by the growth of microorganisms as well as the breakdown of foods by enzymes. In this course, you'll learn about the history of food preservation, definitions and usefulness, and how to choose a preparation method.
Duration: 2 hours

Often a mature fruit tree tends to produce so much fruit (all at once), that it’s difficult to know what to do with it, especially in late summer and autumn. If you don’t cage or net your trees, you will always lose some to birds, but there is usually still abundant fruit to preserve and to give to family and friends or to start a small business.
Duration: 2 hours

Food preservatives are added to foods to serve a specific function. Preservatives may be used to retain the nutritional value of a food or to limit the action of microbes and subsequent food spoilage e.g. by maintaining the colour and flavour of food. Typically food preservatives attack the enzymes in microbes stopping them from catalysing reactions in food, or attack the cell wall of a microbe preventing its growth and reproduction.